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Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa)

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Also listed as: Abies balsamea, Balsam fir, Canada turpentine
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • Abies balsam, Abies balsamea, Abies balsamea L. Mill., Abies balsamea var. phanerolepi, alpha-canadinolic resin, alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene, American silver fir, balm of Gilead, balm of Gilead fir, balm of Gilead tree, balsam, Balsam Canada, balsam fir, balsam fir Canada, balsam fir oil, balsam of fir, beta-canadinolic resin, beta-caryophyllene, beta-phellandrene, beta-pinene, blister, blister fir, blister pine, bracketed baksan fir, Canaan fir, Canada turpentine, Canadian balsam, canadinic resin, canadolic resin, caryophyllene oxide, caryophyllene oxide gamma, delta-3-carene, Eastern fir, firm balsam, gamma-caryophyllene, monoterpenes, Kloroperka®, piaric acid, Pinaceae (family), Pinus balsamea, Pinus balsamea L., sapin baumler, sesquiterpenes.
  • Note: Canada balsam is sometimes mistaken for balm of Gilead, a tree in the Populus genus.

Background
  • Canada balsam is a small-to-medium-sized fir tree native to North America and Canada. Its needles are shiny and dark green on the outside and matte, silvery blue-green on the underside. Canada balsam is sometimes mistaken for balm of Gilead, a tree in the Poplar genus.
  • Historically, Native Americans have applied Canada balsam to the skin as a poultice to treat burns and wounds. During the Civil War, balm of balsam fir was reportedly used to treat combat injuries. The essential oil of Canada balsam has been used for coughs and colds.
  • Canada balsam resin is a clear, transparent, and adhesive liquid, with a consistency similar to honey. Purified Canada balsam resin is used as an optical glue, a microscopic prepping agent, and as a fixative and glossing agent in oil painting. Canada balsam resin is also used in combination with other substances in dental procedures. Oils extracted from the resin have been studied experimentally for their antitumor and antibacterial activities. The trunk of Canada balsam also yields oil used for making glassware.
  • Currently, high-quality trials investigating the use of Canada balsam for any medical condition are lacking.
  • Canada balsam is listed on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Abortifacient (induces abortion), analgesic (pain reliever), anesthetic, anthelmintic (expels parasitic worms), anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, anti-itch, antiperspirant, antiseptic, aphrodisiac (increases sexual desire), aromatherapy, asthma, birth control, bronchitis, bubonic plague (prevention), burns, carminative (expels gas), chilblains (inflammation of the toes, fingers, ears, or face upon exposure to cold), childbirth (burning of umbilical cord), cholera, circulatory stimulant, common cold, cough, cough suppressant, decongestant, dental hygiene, diarrhea, expectorant (releases mucus), eye disorders, fever, fever blisters, food flavoring, hemorrhoids, herpes simplex virus, high blood pressure, hypnotic, hysteria, indigestion, irregular heartbeat (adjunct), jaundice, lactation suppression (suppression of breast milk flow), leg ulcers, menstrual flow stimulant, nervousness, nerve pain, onychomycosis (fungal nail infection), pain, parasites, pneumonia, preservative, respiratory stimulant, rheumatism (pain in joints, muscles, and connective tissues), rosacea, scabies, seasickness, sedative, sprains, stimulant (cardiac, central nervous system), swelling, warts.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose of camphor in adults. The German Commission E recommends a general dose of 30-300 milligrams taken by mouth as the average daily dosage of liquid or solid preparations of camphor. For application to the skin, Commission E recommends a general dose of 10-20% in semisolid preparations of camphor, or 1-10% in camphor spirits.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose of camphor in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or sensitivity to camphor or any of its components. Contact dermatitis has been reported.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Camphor and camphor-containing products are generally applied to the skin. Such preparations may be potentially poisonous if taken by mouth and may induce a number of adverse and potentially fatal side effects. Caution is advised when using any internal preparations of camphor, due to their potential toxicity.
  • Side effects may include dermatitis, eczema, fatigue, or gallstones.
  • Avoid in children, as poisoning and liver toxicity have been reported after external use. Symptoms of poisoning may include nausea and vomiting, an abnormally rapid heart rate, peripheral circulatory shock, increases in liver enzymes, muscle spasms or tremors, seizures, agitation, coma, headache, fatigue, drowsiness, damage to the central nervous system, blurry vision, inflammation of the cornea and conjunctivae of the eye, apnea, respiratory depression, lesions on the mouth, kidney damage, cyanosis (blue color) of the lips, and lethargy.
  • Camphor, when used as part of the combination product Korodin® Herz-Kreislauf-Tropfen, may increase blood pressure. Caution is advised in patients with high blood pressure or in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that regulate blood pressure.
  • Avoid use on injured or broken skin.
  • Avoid in patients with intermittent acute porphyria, which is a rare disorder in which heme, an important part of hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen), is not made properly.
  • Avoid taking by mouth preparations of camphor intended for use on the outside of the body, due to reports of toxicity.
  • Avoid in patients with a known allergy or sensitivity to camphor or any of its components.
  • Avoid in patients with infectious or inflammatory gastrointestinal conditions.
  • Avoid using near the nose in children or infants.
  • Avoid use in pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Avoid in pregnant or breastfeeding women, due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Camphor, when used as part of the combination product Korodin® Herz-Kreislauf-Tropfen, may increase blood pressure. Caution is advised in patients taking drugs that affect blood pressure.
  • Camphor may interact with agents that affect the nerves, antibiotics, antifungals, anti-inflammatory agents, drugs that are toxic to the liver or kidneys, iron salts, and pain relievers.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Camphor, when used as part of the combination product Korodin® Herz-Kreislauf-Tropfen, may increase blood pressure. Caution is advised in patients taking herbs or supplements that affect blood pressure.
  • Camphor may interact with antibacterials, antifungals, anti-inflammatory agents, antioxidants, capsaicin, iron, herbs and supplements that affect the nerves, herbs and supplements that are toxic to the liver or kidneys, and pain relievers.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Cohen M, Wolfe R, Mai T, et al. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of a topical cream containing glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and camphor for osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 2003;30(3):523-528.
  2. Cold, cough, allergy, bronchodilator, and antiasthmatic drug products for over-the-counter human use; amendment of final monograph for OTC antitussive drug products. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule. Fed Regist 2000;65(148):46864-46868.
  3. El Shazly AM, Hassan AA, Soliman M, et al. Treatment of human by camphor oil and metronidazole. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2004;34(1):107-116.
  4. Emery DP, Corban JG. Camphor toxicity. J Paediatr Child Health 1999;35(1):105-106.
  5. Hempel B, Kroll M, Schneider, B. [Efficacy and safety of a herbal drug containing hawthorn berries and D-camphor in hypotension and orthostatic circulatory disorders/results of a retrospective epidemiologic cohort study]. Arzneimittelforschung 2005;55(8):443-450.
  6. Janjua NR, Mogensen B, Andersson AM, et al. Systemic absorption of the sunscreens benzophenone-3, octyl-methoxycinnamate, and 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) camphor after whole-body topical application and reproductive hormone levels in humans. J Invest Dermatol 2004;123(1):57-61.
  7. Kroll M, Ring C, Gaus W, et al. A randomized trial of Korodin Herz-Kreislauf-Tropfen as add-on treatment in older patients with orthostatic hypotension. Phytomedicine 2005;12(6-7):395-402.
  8. Lee HJ, Hyun EA, Yoon WJ, et al. anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;103(2):208-216.
  9. Lim GC, Chen YF, Liu L, et al. Camphor-related self-inflicted keratoconjunctivitis complicating delusions of parasitosis. Cornea 2006;25(10):1254-1256.
  10. Martin D, Valdez J, Boren J, et al. Dermal absorption of camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate in humans. J Clin Pharmacol 2004;44(10):1151-1157.
  11. Morsy TA, Morsy, GH, Sanad EM. Eucalyptus globulus (camphor oil) in the treatment of human demodicidosis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2002;32(3):797-803.
  12. Naukkarinen H, Raassina R, Penttinen J, et al. Deramciclane in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-finding study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2005;15(6):617-623.
  13. Prabuseenivasan S, Jayakumar M, Ignacimuthu S. antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006;6:39.
  14. Wu J. Treatment of rosacea with herbal ingredients. J Drugs Dermatol 2006;5(1):29-32.
  15. Xu H, Blair NT, Clapham DE. Camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channel in a vanilloid-independent mechanism. J Neurosci 2005;25(39):8924-8937.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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